European system operators have proposed a set of indicators to monitor the evolution of smart grids at the distribution level.
The key performance indicators (KPIs) comprise seven for distribution system operators (DSOs) and one common for transmission and distribution operators.
These were developed for Europe’s national regulatory authorities in response to EU Electricity Directive requirements for a new methodology to enable them to monitor infrastructure upgrades with smart grids, focussing on energy efficiency and the integration of renewable energies.
The review identified six common challenges facing DSOs as cooperation in network operation and in network planning, exchange of information on long term planning of network investments and regarding generation and demand response for daily operation, cooperation for coordinated access to resources, and ensuring the secure and reliable development and operation of the networks.
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The DSO KPIs that have been identified are as follows:
1 – System observability: To measure the capability to keep under ‘proper monitoring’ of the relevant nodes/lines of the grid.
2 – System controllability: To measure the capability to keep the grid under ‘proper control’.
3 – Active system management: To measure the capability to perform active management of the grid in daily/short-term operation.
4 – Smart grid planning: To measure the capability to use design and planning procedures to fulfil actual grid needs in medium and long-term, guaranteeing cost efficiency in grid updating and the most efficient use of existing assets.
5 – Transparency in data access and sharing between relevant stakeholders: To measure the capability to make accessible and share data between stakeholders.
6 – Local flexibility markets and customer inclusion: To measure how much the customer is involved in grid management and enabled to provide services to the grid and to measure how much the local flexibility market/customer agreements are implemented and how much it can contribute to grid (and system) management.
7 – Smart asset management: To measure the use of advanced asset management strategies, tools and methods focusing on assets condition monitoring and risk mitigation.
The common TSO-DSO KPI is:
1 – TSO-DSO coordination capabilities: To measure coordination capability between TSOs and DSOs.
Each of the KPIs are presented with key indicators as examples of performances that can be measured or alternatively adapted to national specificities.
The KPIs were prepared from the work of a joint TSO and DSO task force created in March 2020 under the initiative of ENTSO-E and the four European DSO associations CEDEC, E.DSO, Eurelectric and GEODE.
The report states that the KPIs are intended to supplement existing indicators such as SAIDI and SAIFI and further work should be done at country level to select the most appropriate defined parameters.
With the indicators in place, the national regulators are required under the Directive to report smart grid assessments every two years.